2006;17(12):5265C74. 2010). Phosphatidylcholine (Personal computer, Iopromide 45C60%) classes are the most common, followed by phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, 10C20%), phosphatidylinositol (PI, 6C12%), phosphatidylserine (PS, 4%), and cardiolipin ( 3%; examined in (Smith and Butikofer 2010; Serricchio and Butikofer 2011; Farine and Butikofer 2012; Ramakrishnan et al. 2013)). A significant proportion of glycerolipids (primarily PE and PS varieties) with this parasite carry an ether-linked aliphatic fatty alcohol (ether lipids) instead of a fatty acid (ester lipids) in the because they happen like a structural building block of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor of the most abundant cell surface glycoproteins, such as procyclin and Iopromide variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). Procyclin is definitely thought to be important for retarding digestion of the parasite in the tsetse take flight gut, while the major part of VSG is in evasion of the adaptive immune system of the mammalian sponsor by a process Iopromide called antigenic variance (Mix 1996; Ruepp et al. 1997; Acosta-Serrano et al. 2001; Hong and Kinoshita 2009). scavenges lipids from its sponsor environment but also has the capability to synthesize its own glycerolipids (examined in (Smith and Butikofer 2010; Serricchio and Butikofer 2011; Farine and Iopromide Butikofer 2012; Ramakrishnan et al. 2013)). Despite the availability of the genome sequence combined with genetic and biochemical studies, little is known about Rabbit Polyclonal to EPS15 (phospho-Tyr849) how this parasite generates its glycerolipids. possesses two unique protein machineries to produce fatty acids (Paul et al. 2001; Lee et al. 2006; Lee et al. 2007b; Stephens et al. 2007). Based on biochemical and genetic studies, probably the most abundant glycerolipids Personal computer and PE are primarily made by the pathway that initiates with the uptake of choline and ethanolamine from your sponsor, respectively (examined in (Smith and Butikofer 2010; Serricchio and Butikofer 2011; Farine and Butikofer 2012; Ramakrishnan et al. 2013)). While PI is made by a PI synthase localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus using genome (Tb11.01.6800, Tb927.6.1820, and Tb927.8.5140, respectively; (Smith and Butikofer 2010; Serricchio and Butikofer 2011; Farine and Butikofer 2012; Ramakrishnan et al. 2013)). Ether lipids are made by acylation of dihydroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP) by a DHAP acyltransferase (DHAPAT), and the subsequent action of alkyl-DHAP synthase and alkyl/acylDHAP reductase, all associated with the glycosomal fractions (Opperdoes 1984; Zomer et al. 1995; Heise and Opperdoes 1997; Vertommen et al. 2008). Only the gene for the alkyl-DHAP synthase has been recognized in (Zomer et al. 1999). The second option pathway has also been shown to be used for the production of ester glycerolipids in additional organisms (Jones and Hajra 1983; Liu et al. 2005; Zufferey and Mamoun 2005). In that case, 1-acylDHAP is converted to 1-acyl-G3P by an acyl/alkyl-DHAP reductase. GPAT enzymes have been characterized from several and varied living organisms: bacteria, vegetation, yeast, mammals, as well as protozoan parasites (Santiago et al. 2004; Zufferey and Mamoun 2005). While some are soluble enzymes, others are integral transmembrane proteins. Eukaryotic cells usually harbor several GPAT enzymes localized in different organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Iopromide the mitochondria, and chloroplasts in vegetation, while bacteria usually possess only one. Notably, in contrast to all other eukaryotic cells characterized so far, the protozoan parasite bears only one GPAT enzyme, but their molecular identities have not been established yet (Opperdoes 1984; Heise and Opperdoes 1997). The present work focuses.