10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-0968 [PubMed] [CrossRef] [Google Scholar] 12. activities, such as infiltration of cytotoxic cells ( 0.05) and exhausted CD8+ T cells ( 0.01), and increased the IFN- scores ( 0.05). The results differed in MSI-H COAD individuals (all 0.05). Summary: HRR gene mutations significantly increased immune activities in MSS COAD individuals, implying the feasibility of the HRR-mut status as an immunotherapy response Ilorasertib predictor in MSS COAD. or mutation , as next-generation sequencing (NGS) was developed, several studies in gynecological malignancy have suggested that individuals with somatic mutations in components of the homologous recombination restoration (HRR) pathway will also be likely to have an HRD phenotype [11C13]. However, comprehensive evaluations of HRR in COAD have not been conducted, and the association between HRR gene mutations and the immunotherapy response in COAD has not been investigated. In this study, we 1st used a large Chinese COAD cohort of 406 individuals to illustrate the HRR somatic mutation profiles and related molecular characteristics (tumor mutation burden (TMB) and MSI data). Furthermore, to analyze the COAD cohort from your Tumor Genome Atlas (TCGA), we compared the immune characteristics between the HRR-mut and HRR-wt groups of all individuals, MSI-H patients, and MSS patients to explore the feasibility of the HR-mut status as an immunotherapy biomarker in COAD, especially MSS COAD. RESULTS Mutational scenery of HRR genes in Chinese COAD patients To better understand the genomic alteration profile of Chinese COAD patients, we performed NGS on a panel of 543 cancer-related genes to search for somatic mutations. The three most frequently mutated genes were and in COAD, and the mutation frequency of in the Chinese cohort (70%) was higher than that in the TCGA cohort (52%) (Supplementary Physique 1). Comparable mutational patterns in HRR genes were observed in both cohorts; were among the most frequently mutated HRR genes. Overall, the mutation frequency of HRR genes in the Chinese cohort (70/406, 17%) was Ilorasertib lower than that in the TCGA cohort (78/302, 26%) (Physique 1A, ?,1B).1B). Further analysis of genetic interactions revealed that this HRR-mut status (all somatic mutations in HRR genes were masked as HRR-mut) was co-occurrent with alterations in but unique to alterations in in both cohorts (Physique 1C, ?,1D1D). Open in a separate window Physique 1 Mutational scenery and genomic patterns of HRR genes in COAD. (A, B) Mutational scenery of HR genes in the Chinese cohort (A) and TCGA cohort (B). The columns and rows symbolize patients and genes, respectively. The patients are sorted in decreasing order by the number of patients in whom a gene is usually mutated. Rabbit polyclonal to CyclinA1 The right panel indicates the frequency of gene mutations. Mutation Ilorasertib types are indicated by different colors. Gray denotes an absence of mutations. (C, D) Co-occurring and unique somatic mutations in the Chinese cohort (C) and TCGA cohort (D). values were calculated using Fishers exact test. All somatic mutated HRR genes were masked as HRR-mut. These figures were generated with the somaticInteractions functions in the maftools package. Subjects with somatic mutations in these core HR pathway genes (observe Materials and Methods) were included in the HRR-mut group (n=70, Chinese cohort; n=78, TCGA cohort) in subsequent analyses. Mutations in HRR genes are associated with the TMB and the MSI status Even though TMB is not currently used as an immunotherapy biomarker in CRC, it has been suggested to play an important role in guiding the sequence and/or combination of ICIs in the treatment of MSI-H mCRC.