Glycosyltransferases represent a large family of enzymes that catalyse the biosynthesis of oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and glycoconjugates. the ganglioside biosynthesis pathway (Fig. 1). It really is proposed that reduced ST3GAL2 and B3GALT4 manifestation potential clients to vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons via aberrant ganglioside synthesis. In keeping with this hypothesis, the Bupranolol amount of GM1 ganglioside-expressing cells in the Bupranolol Parkinsons disease substantia nigra Bupranolol are decreased (Wu and (Fig. 1). In keeping with impaired ganglioside synthesis, the same research reported decreased ganglioside concentrations within both diseased human being caudate as well as the mouse striatum. It ought to be mentioned that despite significant homology to can be traditionally connected with are connected with familial ALS (Cooper-Knock pursuing Bupranolol in an impartial genome-wide display for DNA mutations in 12 trios including sporadic ALS individuals and unaffected parents (Pamphlett = 0.007). Identical testing didn’t determine an enrichment of ALS-associated mutations within OGT, certainly we only determined two rare missense mutations within OGT in 4493 sporadic ALS patients. It should be noted that OGT is encoded on the X chromosome and therefore males are necessarily hemizygous, which may predispose to a neurodevelopmental phenotype rather than a late age-of-onset disease: for example mutations within N-terminal tetratricopeptide repeats of OGT are associated with X-linked intellectual disability (Gundogdu = 0.91). Table 2 Mutations in EOGT found in ALS patients that is interesting, but rather upstream changes in glycosyltransferase function that initiate toxicity. With this in mind we have highlighted genetic associations between mutations in glycosyltransferases and neurodegenerative disease. Most prominently we have recently discovered autosomal dominant mutations in GLT8D1 to be a monogenic cause of ALS. Disease-associated mutations have also been discovered in UGT8 and ST6GAL1; and we have revealed a new association between ALS and mutations in EOGT. Glycosyltransferases are likely to be an important therapeutic target in the effort of develop disease-modifying therapies for neurodegenerative disease. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Project MinE GWAS Consortium. We are very grateful to those ALS patients and control subjects who donated biosamples. Funding We acknowledge grants from the Academy of Medical Sciences, EU Framework 7 Bupranolol (Euro-Motor), and the JPND/MRC SOPHIA, STRENGTH and ALS-CarE projects. T.M. is supported by the University of Sheffield Lee Newton PhD studentship. J.C.-K. holds a NIHR Clinical Lectureship and P.J.S. is supported as an NIHR Senior Investigator. This work was also supported by the NIHR Sheffield Biomedical Research Centre for Translational Neuroscience and the Sheffield NIHR Clinical Research Facility. Competing interests The authors report no competing KLF4 interests. Glossary AbbreviationsALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosisO-GlcNAc = O-linked –N-acetylglucosamine.