Supplementary MaterialsTransparency Document mmc1

Supplementary MaterialsTransparency Document mmc1. severe attacks caused by Gram-positive bacteria [3,8]. In a normal cell, there is an adequate pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance. However, when the reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species production increased, or there is a diminution in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress occurs [9]. Oxidative stress prospects to activation of pro-apoptotic transmission proteins, primarily through activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) [10]. Further, oxidative stress N-Acetylornithine can damage biomolecules, such as DNA, lipids and proteins [11]. The erythroid nuclear factor 2-like 2 (Nrf2) is the grasp regulator of redox homeostasis; it is a transcription factor that Rabbit Polyclonal to PPP4R1L induces the expression of antioxidant and detoxification enzyme genes [12,13]. Nrf2 can be activated by xenobiotics, oxidizing brokers and electrophiles by regulating antioxidant defense systems through numerous mechanisms [14]. In basal conditions, Keap1 represses the transcription N-Acetylornithine factor N-Acetylornithine Nrf2 within the cytoplasm, directing it to ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. When oxidative stress occurs, Nrf2 is usually released from its repressor, which leads to its translocation to the nucleus and subsequent expression of its target genes [13,15]. Thus, Nrf2 confers cellular protection against the damaging effects of several insults [16]. Some studies have previously shown that LTA from induces ROS production, SOD activity reduction, moderate activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and subsequent nitric oxide (NO) production [6,17]. Nevertheless, LTA effects on superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1) antioxidant enzymes levels have not been evaluated. This work aimed to investigate the LTA effects on ROS and NO production, glutathione (GSH) content, levels of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, CAT, and GPx-1) and Nrf2 mRNA expression, as well as to determine antioxidant enzymes role in cell protection. 2.?Material and methods 2.1. Reagents Rat embryonic cardiomyocyte (H9c2) cell collection was from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA, USA). LTA (Bonferroni assessments were used to review the data using the statistical program Sigma Plot v 11.0 (Systat Software, San Jose, CA, USA). p?