The following laboratory tests were performed in all patients: serum IgG, complement C3 and C4, cryoglobulins, anti-AQP4, cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal banding, rheumatoid factors, antinuclear, anti-Sj?gren’s-syndrome-related antigen A (SSA), anti-Sj?gren’s-syndrome-related antigen B (SSB), and antiphospholipid antibodies (Wang et al., 2014). (NMO) is definitely classically described as optic neuritis and longitudinal considerable transverse myelitis, and is associated with additional autoimmune disorders in 10C40% of ONT-093 ONT-093 individuals (Takahashi et al., 2007; Gono et al., 2011). The analysis of NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is definitely greatly facilitated by screening for a specific biomarker for NMO: immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies focusing on water channel protein aquaporin 4 (AQP4) in the astrocytic foot processes, which contributes to the ONT-093 formation of the blood brain barrier (Wingerchuk et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2014; Kleiter and Gold, 2016). Despite a prevalence ranging between 1C3% in the general population, approximately 30% of main Sj?gren’s syndrome (pSS) individuals present with additional autoimmune diseases (Peri et al., 2012). Several studies possess reported that organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as thyroid diseases and myasthenia gravis, and non-organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, pSS, rheumatoid arthritis, and undifferentiated connective cells disease, are strongly associated with NMOSD (Takahashi et al., 2007; Pittock et al., 2008; Gono et al., 2011). pSS is definitely a chronic autoimmune disease of the exocrine glands characterized by focal lymphocytic infiltration and damage of these glands. The analysis of pSS requires a set of demanding clinical tests. Probably the most widely accepted diagnostic standard is the Western criteria of Vitali (Vitali et al., 2002). Sj?gren’s syndrome is more frequent in ladies, having a female-to-male percentage of 9:1, and peaks in ONT-093 individuals in their mid-50s (Tzioufas et al., 2008). Central nervous system manifestations in pSS are varied and span the entire neuroaxis. There is no consensus concerning the prevalence of central nervous system involvement in pSS. A few studies have attempted to address the relationship between pSS and NMOSD (Massara et al., 2010). However, the characteristics of different NMOSDs have not been sufficiently investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the neurological, laboratory, and MRI features of NMOSD individuals, with or without pSS, and their medical outcomes. Subjects and Methods Subjects We retrospectively analyzed 16 NMOSD individuals who have been diagnosed and admitted to the First Hospital of Jilin University or college of China between May 2010 and May 2014. The following data were collected from your medical records: age at disease onset, age at diagnosis, age at first neurological manifestation, disease duration (determined from time of disease onset to January 2014), radiological characteristics, laboratory investigations, and treatment. NMO was defined using the 2006 medical diagnostic criteria (Wingerchuk et al., 2006). Additional criteria included: (a) autoantibody analysis carried out, including anti-AQP4 antibody, extractable nuclear antigen, autoantibodies antinuclear (ANA) antibodies, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies; (b) availability of the following laboratory data: rheumatoid factors, immunoglobulins, Rictor match C3 and ONT-093 C4, and thyroid hormones; and (c) MRI check out of the brain and spinal cord. pSS was diagnosed using a set of demanding medical and immunologic criteria based on probably the most widely accepted Western criteria of Vitali (Vitali et al., 2002). In addition, NMOSD was defined using the revised clinical diagnostic criteria of Wingerchuk et al. (2007). Owing to the difficulty of symptoms, physicians paid special attention to atypical extraglandular symptoms in addition to the classical clinical evidence of xerophthalmia, xerostomia, and laboratory test results, suggesting a systemic autoimmune disease. At the time of pSS analysis, small salivary gland biopsies showed lymphocytic infiltration in all pSS individuals. All individuals were evaluated by neurologists/rheumatologists, and neurological manifestations were only attributed to pSS after excluding other causes. The patients were divided into two groups: one with ten NMOSD patients without pSS and the other with six NMOSD patients with pSS. The study was approved.